A probate court, which is sometimes referred to as a surrogate court, is a specialized court and legal process that deals with matters pertaining to the probate and the administration of the estate of deceased persons.
These specialized courts ascertain and oversee the proper administration and distribution of the assets of a decedent (one who has died), determine and certify the validity of wills, enforce the provisions of a valid will (by issuing the grant of probate), prevent improper action or malfeasance by executors and administrators of estates, and provide for the equitable distribution of the assets of persons who die intestate (without a valid will). In such cases, the court may appoint a personal representative to administer the matters pertaining to an estate.
If there are disputes regarding an estate, the probate court ultimately decides who is to receive the property of a deceased person. In a case of an intestacy, the court determines who is to receive the deceased’s property under the laws it is governed by. The probate court will oversee the process of distributing the deceased’s assets to the proper beneficiaries. In some states or jurisdictions, probate courts are also referred to as orphans courts, superior courts, courts of ordinary or other names. Not all jurisdictions have specific probate courts and, in some locales, probate matters are handled by a chancery court or another court of equity.
The probate court can be petitioned by parties that are interested in or who have claims against an estate, such as when a beneficiary feels that an estate is being mishandled or someone to whom the decedent owed money. The court has the authority to demand that an executor, executrix or personal representative give an account of their actions on behalf of an estate.